The human papillomavirus vaccine is one example of a new biomedical technology for sexual health promotion. Additional appearing technologies include other STD vaccines, microbicides and pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention (PrEP). Each of these technologies has its own limits with respect to effective utilization. Microbicides are materials (creams, gels or foams) that are inserted into vagina or rectum for the prevention of HIV or other STDs. PrEP, another emerging biomedical elucidation, involves the use of antiretroviral medications (e.g., tenofovir and emtri-citabine) for HIV prevention.